Environmental Fluid Mechanics 1:
Mass Transfer and Diffusion

Animations and still images

Suggested reference books

  • Csanady, G.T. (1973), Turbulent Diffusion in the Environment, D. Reidel Publishing Comany, Dordrecht, Holland.
  • Fischer, H.B., List, E.G., Koh, R.C.Y., Imberger, J. & Brooks, N.H. (1979), Mixing in Inland and Coastal Waters, Academic Press, New York, NY.
  • Kundu, P.K. & Cohen, I.M. (2002), Fluid Mechanics, 2nd Edition, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  
  • Mei, C.C. (1997), Mathematical Analysis in Engineering, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.
  • Rutherford, J.C. (1994), River Mixing, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England.
  • van Dyke, M. (1982), An Album of Fluid Motion, The Parabolic Press, Stanford, California.
  • Wetzel, R.G. (1983), Limnology, Saunders Press, Philadelphia, PA.

Web-based resources:

Environmental Fluid Mechanics (EFM) Courses at other Universities

General EFM Websites
  • Fluid Mechanics at MIT
    This is a consortium of courses offered at MIT in the field of Fluid Mechanics.  The goal of the fluid mechanics web page is to, "develop a coordinated sequence of modular subjects to be used by graduate students from different departments, in order to reduce unnecessary overlap and to increase interdisciplinary exchanges."
  • Environmental Fluid Dynamics Program at ASU
    This is a website dedicated to research programs in Environmental Fluid Dynamics at the Arizona State University.  Directed by Prof. H.J.S. Fernando, the program is involved in experimental (laboratory and field measurements) and numerical investigations in Atmospheric, Oceanographic, and multi-disciplinary Fluid Mechanics, as well as Fundamental Hydrodynamics.  A wealth of images and technical information is available at the site.  
  • University of Iowa Fluids Laboratory
    A site dedicated to numerical and laboratory experiments in fluid mechanics with many demos and explanatory texts (most in PDF format).
  • eFluids.com
    A comprehensive web-site dedicated to fluids research.
EFM Image and Animation Galleries
Water Quality Model Collections
Selected Water Quality Models
    Dynamic Reservoir Water Quality Model.  One-dimensional hydrodynamics model for predicting the vertical distribution of temperature, salinity, and density in lakes and reservoirs.
  • QUAL2E
    Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model.  One-dimensional steady-flow river water quality model that simulates nutrient cycles, algal production, benthic and carbonaceous demand, atmospheric reaeration and their effects on the dissolved oxygen balance. 
  • HSPF
    Hydrological Simulation Program - Fortran.  Continuous simulation watershed water quality model based on the Standford Watershed Model.  Allows point source and non-point source contaminant loading prediction and simulates riverine transport by tanks in series. 
  • SWMM
    Stormwater Management Model.  Modular modeling system for urban watershed runoff prediction and water quality simulation.  Can compute the dynamic St. Venant equations and allows for pressurized pipe flow, but cannot compute contaminant transport with dynamic flow equations.
    One-dimensional, dynamic flow and water quality model for streams.  Solves the fully-dynamic one-dimensional St. Venant equations and contaminant transport using the Holly-Preissman method of characteristics. 
  • ATV Gewässergütemodell
    The ATV Water Quality Model.  Also called the AVG model (Allgemein verfügbares Gewässergütemodell).  A modulare system of models to compute dynamic one-dimensional hydrodynamics and water quality simulations.  Similar capability to QUAL2E with added dynamic ability.  Also simulates sediment transport, pH dynamics, heavy metals and organic chemicals.
    Cornell Mixing-zone Model.  Integral jet, plume, and buoyant jet model for predicting near-field mixing of single-port and multi-port bottom discharges or buoyant surface discharges.  Solves one-dimensional integral equations but allows for three-dimensional trajectory of the contaminant center-line in unsteady ambient flow conditions.
  • WASP
    Water Qualtiy Analysis Simulation Program.  A generalized framework for modeling contaminant fate and transport in surface waters.  Based on the flexible compartment modeling approach, WASP can be applied in one, two, or three dimensions. 
  • POM
    Princeton Ocean Model.  A three dimensional ocean and estuary model using the sigma coordinate system in the vertical, an imbedded second-moment turbulence closure sub-model to provide vertical mixing coefficients, and curvilinear orthogonal horizontal coordinates.  Uses a short time step for the external (barotropic) model and a long time step for the internal (baroclinic) mode.
  • ECOM-si
    Estuarine, Coastal, and Ocean Model.  An extension of the POM model, ECOM-si is a three-dimensional ocean circulation model that incorporates a semi-implicit scheme for solving the gravity wave so that the need for separate barotropic and baroclinic time steps is eliminated.  Information is also available at the HydroQual website.


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